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OP-ED: Exhibit shows Degas' and Cassatt's painterly influence on each other
No romance is revealed but a good deal of artistic influence is explored in an unusual exhibition, simply titled “Degas/Cassatt,” that recently opened on May 11th at the National Gallery of Art in Washington and will close Oct. 5. Comprising 70 painting and prints, a third from the National Gallery and the rest from other museums, the show, which attempts to demonstrate the influence of each on the other, will go nowhere else.
When Degas first came upon a painting by Cassatt, he reportedly said, “There is someone who feels as I do.” Three years later, he called on her and asked her to submit paintings for the next salon of the Impressionists. He also told her in a remark that probably sounded more polite in the 19th century than it does now, “No woman has a right to draw like that.”
Athought of different nationalities, Degas and Cassatt had much in common. Both came from wealthy families, and neither had ever married. But their personalities were far different. Degas loved to dominate dinner parties with his wit and insults. The poet Paul Valéry said Degas "scattered wit, gaiety, terror" at these dinners. He Mimicked and struck home, lavish with his maxims and his taunts, his tirades and his tales." Cassatt, who was born in Pittsburgh and studied art in Paris at the age of nineteen, settled in Paris when she was 30. She was not volatile like Degas but possessed, as one male friend put it, "An electric vitality," and she proved as fashionable as the women she depicted.
There was some similarity in their work. Unlike most impressionists, for example, both Degas and Cassatt hardly ever painted a landscape. Many contemporaries regarded them as teacher and pupil. But this is disputed by Kimberly A. Jones of the National Gallery of Art, the curator of the exhibition.
“Cassatt was no mere student of Degas,” she writes in the catalogue, “but a peer who displayed a confidence and facility on a par with his own.” Degas, according to this view, helped out a younger artist from to time and was in turn helped by the younger artist.
The influence of Degas is easiest to document. In 1903, Cassatt discussed her 1878 painting, “Little Girl in a Blue Armchair,” in a letter to a French dealer. She wrote that the model was “a child of friends of M. Degas” and that “he found it to be good and advised me on the background, he even worked on the background.”
The painting is a longtime prize of the National Gallery’s permanent collection, and the show gave Ann Hoenigswald, the gallery’s senior conservator, the opportunity to examine the painting with an infra-red camera to find out what Cassatt was talking about.
The evidence persuaded her Hoenigswald that Cassatt had originally painted a straight line separating the wall in the back from the floor. The straight line was parallel to the top of the canvas, and the result was a boring. background. This was changed, presumably at Degas’ suggestion, by painting a new room corner into what had been a single wall. The new arrangement produced a pair of diagonals along the two walls coming out of the new corner, creating a feeling of movement in the center of the painting. Hoenigswald also discovered that a piece of the background was painted in a technique that was a trademark of Degas but not Cassatt.
In turn, Jones, the curator, pointed out an obvious influence of Cassatt on Degas. She experimented with metallic paint and used it in such paintings as “Woman Standing Holding a Fan.” Degas, who had not done so before, began applying metallic paint to some of his work, including the unflattering “Portrait After a Costume Ball (Portrait of Mme. Dietz-Monnin).”
Both artists Degas and Cassatt are well known for paintings and prints of scenes at the Paris Opera. Their works seem like part of a deliberate dialogue: while Cassatt painted scenes of fashionable women in the audience, Degas concentrated on ballet dancers on stage and in rehearsal backstage. There are several examples in the show of the differing Cassatt and Degas scenes at the opera.
There was a practical reason for the dual approach. As Jones explains, “As a woman of her class, she couldn’t go backstage.” It would have been regarded as unseemly. As a result, she could not compete with Degas’s delightful scenes of ballet masters rehearsing young dancers. And he was too fascinated by life backstage to compete with Cassatt on the fashions of the audience.
There is no question that they were collaborators in the art of printmaking. In 1879, Degas invited Cassatt to join him and several other artists in creating a periodical that would offer original prints to customers. It would be called Le Jour et La Nuit (Day and Night). Degas was more experienced at printmaking than Cassatt, but Cassatt soon caught up with him.
For the first issue, Degas prepared a complex etching called “Mary Cassatt at the Louvre: The Etruscan Gallery.” It showed the back of the well-dressed Cassatt, wearing a sumptuous hat and leaning on a folded umbrella for balance, as she studied a canvas. in the Louvre. Her sister Lydia, reading a guidebook, sat nearby. (He used the same material later for a second etching and for a pastel.)
Cassatt’s contribution was an etching with a familiar subject, a woman with a fan sitting in the opera house. This print, called “In the Opera Box (No. 3),” omits the detail of her paintings on the same subject and offers a kind of fleeting, impressionist view of the woman caught in the lights of the opera house.
But Le Jour et La Nuit folded even before its first issue. It is not clear why, but some attribute the failure to Degas’ loss of interest. He evidently decided that printmaking demanded excessive labor for limited reward.
Degas used Cassatt as a model several times and painted an oil portrait as well. Cassatt never painted him. Degas.
An exhibition of Japanese prints in Paris in 1890 encouraged Cassatt to produce a set of ten highly colored copper engravings of the daily life of upper class Parisian women. The set, which included “Maternal Caress” and “Woman Bathing,” proved so popular that it persuaded Degas to return to printmaking.
After the final salon of impressionist painting in 1886, the relationship between Cassatt and Degas waned. This was the era when Cassatt began painting her renowned canvases of mothers and children, such as “Child Picking a Fruit.” is a good example in the show.
The Dreyfus Affair, which began in 1894, would have challenged their relationship in any case. In that year, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, the only Jew on the General Staff of the French Army, was falsely accused of betraying France by passing military secrets to Germany and He was sentenced to life imprisonment. on Devil’s Island off the coast of South America.
The case divided France into bitter sides. Joining most French intellectuals, the American Cassatt believed Dreyfus innocent. Degas, on the other hand, became vehemently anti-Dreyfus and anti-Semitic. and often berated the supporters of Dreyfus. There is a report of at least one open quarrel between Degas and Cassatt over Dreyfus.
As evidence mounted that Army officers had forged the evidence against Dreyfus, Degas insisted that the honor of the French army was more important than the fate of the Jew rotting on Devil’s Island off the coast of South America. The government exonerated Dreyfus in 1906, but Degas never accepted this turn in the affair.
The Dreyfus affair, however, did not end their relationship. Cassatt helped her American relatives and friends, especially H.O. and Louisine Havemeyer, amass collections of Degas works, often by buying from Degas directly.
Sometimes the sale was out of Degas’ hands. When the Havemeyers purchased a Degas painting from an anonymous collector in 1912 for 478,500 francs (almost $100,000), it set a world record for the cost of a painting by a living artist. Degas, who received nothing from the sale, said he felt “like a racehorse who has won the Grand Prix and receives only his ration of oats.”
Degas’ health deteriorated so badly a few years later that Cassatt persuaded his niece, a nurse, to live with him permanently. Degas died in 1917 at the age of 83. Cassatt wrote a friend, “His death is a great deliverance, but I am sad...He was my oldest friend here, and the last great artist of the 19th century — I see no one to replace him.” Cassatt died in 1926, also at the age of 83.
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Stanley Meisler is the author of the biography "Kofi Annan: A Man of Peace in a World of War", the history "United Nations : The First Fifty Years" and his latest book "When The World Calls: The Inside Story Of The Peace Corps And Its First Fifty Years." Meisler served as a Los Angeles Times foreign and diplomatic correspondent for thirty years, assigned to Nairobi, Mexico City, Madrid, Toronto, Paris, Barcelona, the United Nations and Washington. He still contributes articles to the Los Angeles Times Book Review, Sunday Opinion and Art sections and writes a News Commentary for his website, www.stanleymeisler.com. For David M. Kinchen's review of "When The World Calls" click: http://www.huntingtonnews.net/2023
Note: This article was originally published in the Los Angeles Times and is reprinted here by permission of Stanley Meisler